Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany. Expressionist architecture is one of the three dominant styles of Modern architecture International Style, Expressionist, and Constructivist architecture.
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Brick Expressionism is a special variant of this movement in western and northern Germany and in The Netherlands.
The term "Expressionist architecture" initially described the activity of the German, Dutch, Austrian, Czech and Danish avant garde from 1910 until 1930. Subsequent redefinitions extended the term backwards to 1905 and also widened it to encompass the rest of Europe. Today the meaning has broadened even further to refer to architecture of any date or location that exhibits some of the qualities of the original movement such as; distortion, fragmentation or the communication of violent or overstressed emotion.
Important events in Expressionist architecture include the Werkbund Exhibition (1914) in Cologne, the completion and theatrical running of the Großes Schauspielhaus, Berlin in 1919, the Glass Chain letters, and the activities of the Amsterdam School.
The style was characterised by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, and very unusual massing.